For information the OPINION
of the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety made various recommendations about regulating the sale of LED devices as well as proposing further research into risk levels.
The Agency's recommendationsAdvance knowledge
Regarding the assessment of risks related to exposure to LEDs, ANSES underlines the need to
better quantify the risk levels associated with the identified effects. It thus recommends initiating
additional research aiming to:
improve knowledge of exposure for the general population, workers and the environment;
better characterise the health effects associated with the temporal modulation of the light from LEDs in addition to long-term phototoxicity;
clarify the exposure-response relationship between exposure and the occurrence of health
effects (especially those involving circadian disruption, phototoxicity, etc.).
Lastly, to respond to the potential health effects associated with exposure to LED phototherapy
devices, the Agency advises the public authorities to have a risk-benefit assessment of these devices
undertaken by a competent organisation.Adapt the regulations and improve information
In light of the newly available experimental data concerning phototoxicity mechanisms, ANSES
underlines the need to update the exposure limits (ELs) for blue light, especially to take into account
the specific situation of children, whose eye lens filters blue light much less efficiently than that of
adults and elderly people. These ELs are used to verify the compliance of LED systems with the
essential health and safety requirements set out in European directives.
Considering the results of the risk assessment undertaken as part of the collective expert appraisal,
ANSES recommends adapting the regulatory framework applicable to LED systems, in order to:
restrict the sale of LED objects to the general public to those in photobiological risk group 0 or 1;
limit the light intensity of vehicle lamps, while guaranteeing road safety;
establish, at European level, limits minimising the temporal modulation of the light emitted by
all light sources (lighting systems, screens, LED objects), all while improving the characterisation of the related health effects.
Pending changes to the regulations, ANSES recommends raising awareness in the population and
encouraging people, children in particular, to limit their exposure to:
blue-rich light before bedtime and during the night (LED screens: mobile telephones, tablets,
blue-rich lighting, i.e. “cool white” lamps and luminaires, by favouring indirect lighting or using
direct light from LED objects in risk group 2 or higher (hand-held lamps, toys, vehicle lamps,
ANSES also draws attention to the varying levels of effectiveness of the current devices providing
protection against the phototoxicity of blue light (treated lenses, protective glasses, specific screens,
etc.). It also notes their lack of significant action on the preservation of circadian rhythms for which,
in the case of LED screens, exposure can only be limited by reducing the brightness and colour
temperature of screens. It encourages the establishment of standards defining performance criteria
for personal protective equipment in relation to blue light.