I wanted to share the incremental order of building foundation musical vocabulary that I follow. It is this:

Level 1
1. Common time sense of pulse and structure (matrix)
2. A set of 8 basic rhythm units
3. 5-finger tonic positions in all keys (improvise and read melodies)

Level 2
1. Simple and compound duple, triple and quadruple pulse and structure (matrices)
2. Ties and rests to extend the rhythmic cells learned at level 1
3. All the 5-finger positions contained within each and every key (improvise and read melodies)

Level 3
1. Continue to work on awareness of the rhythmic matrix exploring changes of time signature and irregular structures
2. Simple syncopations
3. Major and minor chords mapped across the keys (improvise and read melodies and simple chord accompaniments)

From here on, the order in which you might gain vocabulary needs to be flexible depending on the styles of music you wish to explore.

I'd be interested to hear what other approaches there are out there.